X-ray Imaging Diagnostics for High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP)

We develop novel X-ray diagnostic methods in context of our DoE-NNSA HEDLP grant: “Development of Talbot-Lau Phase-Contrast X-ray Diagnostics for HEDLP”. We design, implement, and test Talbot interferometry diagnostic platforms integrating state-of-the-art X-ray optics and detectors in high-intensity laser, pulsed power, and X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facilities. We characterize experiments related to Laboratory Astrophysics and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) through advanced X-ray Phase-Contrast diagnostic techniques. Original instrumental methods and computational analysis tools are used to obtain plasma electron density gradients and elemental composition information. Simultaneous x-ray transmission, refraction, and dark-field 2D maps can help identify regions of hydrodynamic instabilities, mixing, and ultra-small x-ray scatter, which are not observable in conventional propagation-based radiography due to poor attenuation contrast and limited system resolution.

Talbot interferometers are developed and tested on-site at the University of California San Diego and The Johns Hopkins University. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometers (TXD) are deployed at University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in the Multi-TeraWatt and Omega EP lasers to characterize experiments studying laser-target plasma ablation and shell release dynamics through TXD in the multi-year National Laser Users' Facility (NLUF) campaign: “Phase-contrast imaging of Inner Shell Release through Talbot-Lau X-ray Interferometry”. At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), shock and ablation dynamics of laser-irradiated foams will be studied in FY23 experiments using the Matter Under Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument for “High-resolution Talbot Phase-Contrast Imaging of Laser-driven Foams: Shock Dynamics Studies at the MEC instrument”. Talbot interferometers have been implemented and tested in the LULI2000 and ECLIPSE lasers in France, Llampudken pulsed power generator in Chile, GenASIS current driver at UCSD, and the SACLA XFEL in Japan. Additional diagnostic platforms will be benchmarked in future HED experiments at high-intensity laser, pulsed power generator, and XFEL facilities.

Publications

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, and M. Finkenthal, “Talbot-Lau based Moiré deflectometry with non-coherent sources as potential High Energy Density plasma diagnostic”, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 163302 (2013)

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, and M. Finkenthal, “Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot- Lau interferometer as refraction diagnostic for high energy density plasmas at energies below 10 keV”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 073702 (2014)

D. Stutman, M. P. Valdivia, and M. Finkenthal, “X-ray Moiré deflectometry using synthetic reference images”, Applied Optics 54(19) 5956-5961 (2015)

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, and M. Finkenthal, “Single-shot Z eff dense plasma diagnostic through simultaneous refraction and attenuation measurements with a Talbot–Lau x-ray moiré deflectometer”, Applied Optics 54(10) 2577-2583 (2015)

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, C. Stoeckl, W. Theobald, C. Mileham, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, S. P. Regan, “An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy- density electron density diagnostics”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 023505 (2016)

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, C. Stoeckl, C. S. Mileham, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, S. P. Regan, "A Talbot–Lau X-Ray Deflectometer as a High-Energy Density Plasma Diagnostic", in IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 44, no. 9, 1592-1598 (2016)

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, C. Stoeckl, C. Mileham, I. Begishev, W. Theobald, J. Bromage, S.P. Regan, S. R. Klein, G. Muñoz-Cordovez, M. Vescovi, V. Valenzuela-Villaseca, F. Veloso, “Talbot-Lau x-ray deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments (invited)”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 11D501 (2016)

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, C. Stoeckl, C. Mileham, I. Begishev, J. Bromage, S. Regan, “Talbot-Lau x-ray deflectometry phase-retrieval methods for electron density diagnostics in high-energy density experiments”, Applied Optics 57, 138-145 (2018).

M. P. Valdivia, F. Veloso, D. Stutman, C. Stoeckl, C. Mileham, I. A. Begishev, W. Theobald, M. Vescovi, W. Useche, S. P. Regan, B. Albertazzi, G. Rigon, P. Mabey, T. Michel, S. A. Pikuz, M. Koenig, A. Casner, “X-ray backlighter requirements for refraction-based electron density diagnostics through Talbot-Lau Deflectometry”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89, 10G127 (2018)

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, C. Stoeckl, C. Mileham, J. Zou, S. Muller, K. Kaiser, C. Sorce, P. Keiter, J. R. Fein, M. Trantham, R. P. Drake, S. P. Regan, "Implementation of a Talbot- Lau X-ray Deflectometer Diagnostic Platform for the OMEGA-EP laser", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 91 (2), 023511, (2020)

M. Vescovi, M.P. Valdivia, F. Veloso, D. Stutman, M. Favre, “Implementation of Talbot- Lau x-ray deflectometry in the pulsed power environment”, J. Appl. Phys. 127, 203301 (2020)

V. Bouffetier, L. Ceurvorst, M. P. Valdivia, F. Dorchies, S. Hulin, T. Goudal, D. Stutman, A. Casner, “Proof-of-concept of Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry with a high intensity, high repetition rate laser-driven K-alpha source”, Applied Optics 59 (27), 8380-8387 (2020)

M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, C. Stoeckl, W. Theobald, G. W. Collins IV, V. Bouffetier, M. Vescovi, C. Mileham, I. A. Begishev, S. R. Klein, R. Melean, S. Muller, J. Zou, F. Veloso, A. Casner, F. N. Beg, S. P. Regan, “Talbot-Lau x-ray deflectometer: Refraction-based HEDP imaging diagnostic”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 92 (6) 065110 (2021)

M. P. Valdivia, G. W. Collins IV, F. Conti, F. N. Beg, “Wire, hybrid, and laser-cut X-pinches as Talbot–Lau backlighters for electron density diagnostics”, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 64 (3) 035011 (2022)

G. Perez-Callejo, V. Bouffetier, L. Ceurvorst, T. Goudal, M. P. Valdivia, D. Stutman, and A. Casner, “TIA: A forward model and analyzer for Talbot interferometry experiments of dense plasmas”, Phys. Plasmas 29 (4) 043901 (2022)

M. P. Valdivia, G. Perez-Callejo, V. Bouffetier, G. W. Collins IV, C. Stoeckl, T. Filkins, C. Mileham, M. Romanofsky, I. A. Begishev, W. Theobald, S. R. Klein, M. K. Schneider, F. N. Beg, A. Casner, D. Stutman, “Current advances on Talbot-Lau X-Ray Imaging Diagnostics for High Energy Density experiments (invited)”, Review of Scientific Instruments 93 (11) 115102 (2022)